Madagascar, a story rich in events

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History of Madagascar

The Red Island, with its thousands of kilometers of deserted coastline, with only a few fishing villages to animate them, its characteristic fauna and flora, its unexplored coral reefs rich in life, its tributes in which a population that represents a important mixture of Indian, Chinese and Indonesian blood, the red island where Madagascar represents, despite the proximity of the Mozambique coast, an entity quite different from that of the African continent.

Formed, probably, by the continental shift, following the Gondwana theory, Madagascar remained well off the highways of explorers first, then tourists.

The first to touch and explore the Malagasy coasts were the Arabs around 1400, while the first Europeans to try to settle there were the Portuguese at the beginning of the 16th century. They are followed by French. Interested in the "Route des Indes" and driven by the impossibility of continuing their adventures in the Caribbean, several pirates joined the Indian Ocean, creating bases everywhere and mainly in Madagascar in the late seventeenth century.

The most interesting of his adventurers was Avery who proclaimed himself "king of Madagascar", took the attitudes of emperor, settles with his crew in the Bay of Antongil, in the North West of Madagascar, on an island called Nosy Mangabe (very blue island). At the same time, two singular people began to skim the Indian Ocean, Captain Misson and the Dominican priest Caraccioli. From their association will be born to Diego Suarez a "Republic of Pirate" called "Libertalia". This strange association of politically organized outlaws grew in the Indian Ocean area, and partly recalls the well-known history of Turtle Island.

Other pirates visit or settle on the shores of the Indian Ocean: Kidd Tew, Read and The Hawk are the most important.

During the following centuries, different Malagasy tributes were organized in independent kingdoms to each other on various parts of the territory.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the Merine people in the highlands saw King Andrianampoinimerina, who favored a more modern state and national unity, gain access to the throne. He tried to organize politically, administratively and economically the populations of the highlands.

It was during the nineteenth century that Madagascar opened up to European influence, thanks to King Ramada's policy of openness to the outside world.st.

Queen Ranavalona I, who succeeded him in 1828, retreated, created obstacles to foreign penetration and fought everything European. His reign ended in 1861 and was characterized by armed struggles against France and England.

The history of Nosy Be can begin during the reign of Ravavalona I. At that time, 'the island was called Ambario Be (the largest of several islands) and its population was made up of about 200 Antankarana. In 1836, on the Great land of Madagascar, Queen Tsiomeko reigned over the Boina. His people were forced to take refuge in Nosy Komba in front of the pushed Merina. The Queen took the lead of this exodus.

When the French brigantine "The Hummingbird" arrived in 1839 in Nosy Be harbor, his commander, sent by the French authorities of Reunion for a cruise of exploration of Malagasy coasts, found in Nosy Be a political situation clearly favorable to La France.

The Sakalava, after having asked for help from the Sultan of Zanzibar and the authorities of Mauritius, asked France for protection and assistance, who in 1841 agreed to take possession of the Nosy Be and Nosy Komba islands.

After some fighting against the Merina, calm returned to this region. Since then, the history of Nosy Be and its archipelago has developed in parallel with that of the large island of Madagascar.

The capital of Antananarivo (Antananarivo) was conquered by the French troops after a first war in 1883 and a second in 1894. The "annexation law" to France was proclaimed on August 6, 1896 and ended the independence from Madagascar. Marshal Gallieni, the first governor of the Red Island, will have to fight for another decade against the nuclei of resistance, organized in "guerilla" before establishing peace on the island.

Gallieni and the governors who followed him made many road works by developing agriculture and commerce.

After the Second World War, the unsatisfied claims of the Malagasy led to a rebellion in March 1947 that was violently repressed by the French occupation forces. After a period of calm and significant changes in French politics, the "annexation law of 1896" was abolished. But the Malagasy demands became more and more pressing until the proclamation of the Independence, June 26, 1960.

Madagascar is again independent and elects at the head of the country Philibert Tsiranana, which was deposited during the Revolution of 1972 which brought the soldiers in power. Detail of independence (June 26, 1960) on this article.

The stabilization of the country is acquired with the referendum of December 1975, which made the Commander of Frigate Didier Ratsiraka the first president of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar, and the proclamation of socialist ideals better defined, as the administrative restructuring on the basis "fokonolona" and "fokontany" politico-social entities resolutely Malagasy.

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